Scientific Studies of Pilates Method

Table of Contents

This is a bibliography of scientific studies involving the Pilates method.

For the most part, these are articles in peer-reviewed, reputable science journals. There are also some more popular publications that are well-researched and citing responsible studies.

TIPS: 1. Use the CNTL + F function to Find words you’re interested in.
2. Articles with the word “review” are good for overviews of previous literature on any subject.

Links are provided to full text PDFs where available. Click on [PDF] to follow the link to that article.

Please also consult the Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. Once you join, you’ll have full access to many full-text articles. (They can’t be linked to here [unless I’ve found them somewhere else] so you need to be a member to access.)

Pilates Bibliography

Aladro-Gonzalvo, Arián R, Míriam Machado-Díaz, José Moncada-Jiménez, Jessenia Hernández-Elizondo, and Gerardo Araya-Vargas. “The Effect of Pilates Exercises on Body Composition: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 16, no. 1 (2012): 109–14.

Altan, L, N Korkmaz, M Dizdar, and M Yurtkuran. “Effect of Pilates Training on People with Ankylosing Spondylitis.” Rheumatology International 32, no. 7 (2012): 2093–99. [PDF]

Altan, Lale, Nimet Korkmaz, Ümit Bingol, and Berna Gunay. “Effect of Pilates Training on People with Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Pilot Study.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 90, no. 12 (2009): 1983–88. [PDF]

Anderson, Brent D, and Aaron Spector. “Introduction to Pilates-Based Rehabilitation.” Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Clinics of North America 9, no. 3 (2000): 395–410. [PDF]

Arbuckle, Michael M, Joseph Wieck, and Glen E Clifton. “Foldable Transportable Multiple Function Pilates Exercise Method and Apparatus.” Google Patents, September 12, 2006. [PDF]

Balogh, A. “Pilates and Pregnancy.” RCM Midwives: The Official Journal of the Royal College of Midwives 8, no. 5 (2005): 220–22.

Barker, Anna Lucia, Marie-Louise Bird, and Jason Talevski. “Effect of pilates exercise for improving balance in older adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis.” Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 96, no. 4 (2015): 715-723. [PDF]

Batar, Nazli, Seda Kermen, Sezen Sevdin, Aybuke Ersin, Sevil San, Mustafa Genco Erdem, Halime Pulat Demir, and Duygu Guclu. “Effect of Pilates on Body Composition and Some Biochemical Parameters of Women with Type 2 Diabetes on a Low-Carbohydrate or High-Complex-Carbohydrate Diabetic Diet.” Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 22, no. 6 (n.d.). [PDF]

Bergamin, Marco, S Gobbo, Valentina Bullo, T Zanotto, B Vendramin, Federica Duregon, Lucia Cugusi, V Camozzi, M Zaccaria, and Daniel Neunhaeuserer. “Effects of a Pilates Exercise Program on Muscle Strength, Postural Control and Body Composition: Results from a Pilot Study in a Group of Post-Menopausal Women.” Age 37, no. 6 (2015): 118. [PDF]

Bernardo, Lisa Marie. “The Effectiveness of Pilates Training in Healthy Adults: An Appraisal of the Research Literature.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 11, no. 2 (2007): 106–10. [PDF]

Abstract:Pilates has gained momentum and attention in the past 5 years as a modality for improving flexibility, strength and mind–body awareness. What is not revealed, however, is the scientific basis for this practice. The two-fold purpose of this review was to (1) critically appraise published research on Pilates in healthy adults and (2) propose future research options for this method in healthy adults. An extensive literature search was conducted, using Pilates as the search word. A total of 277 articles were found. Thirty-nine articles and abstracts were published in refereed, professional journals, of which there were only three clinical trials in healthy adults. The strengths of these three clinical trials were the (1) use of established measurements for stated outcomes and (2) documented need for research in this area. The weaknesses were (1) lack of true experimental designs, (2) small sample sizes, and (3) lack of a defined method of Pilates. There is cautious support for the effectiveness of Pilates in improving flexibility, abdominal and lumbo-pelvic stability and muscular activity, primarily due to a lack of sound research methodology surrounding each study. Utilizing a true experimental design and stating the Pilates method utilized can strengthen and improve future Pilates research in healthy adults.

Bird, Marie-Louise, Keith D Hill, and James W Fell. “A Randomized Controlled Study Investigating Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Adults after Training with Pilates.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 93, no. 1 (2012): 43–49. [PDF]

Blum, Charles L. “Chiropractic and Pilates Therapy for the Treatment of Adult Scoliosis.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 25, no. 4 (2002): E1–8. [PDF]

Bryan, Melinda, and Suzanne Hawson. “The Benefits of Pilates Exercise in Orthopaedic Rehabilitation.” Techniques in Orthopaedics 18, no. 1 (2003): 126–29. [PDF]

Byrnes, Keira, Ping-Jung Wu, and Stephney Whillier. “Is Pilates an Effective Rehabilitation Tool? A Systematic Review.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 22, no. 1 (2018): 192–202.

Caldwell, Karen, Mandy Harrison, Marianne Adams, and N Travis Triplett. “Effect of Pilates and Taiji Quan Training on Self-Efficacy, Sleep Quality, Mood, and Physical Performance of College Students.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 13, no. 2 (2009): 155–63. [PDF]

Caldwell, Karen, Marianne Adams, Rebecca Quin, Mandy Harrison, and Jeffrey Greeson. “Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education.” Journal of Dance & Somatic Practices 5, no. 2 (2013): 141–53. [PDF]

Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes de, P E Elisangela Silva, Wagner Zeferino de Freitas, Fabiano Fernandes da Silva, and Renato Aparecido de Souza. “Electromyographic Activity of Rectus Abdominis Muscles during Dynamic Pilates Abdominal Exercises.” Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies 20 (2014): 1e7. [PDF]

Choices, N H S. “A Guide to Pilates-Live Well-NHS Choices.” Men’s Health 18 (2017): 39.

Cruz-Ferreira, Ana, Jorge Fernandes, Luis Laranjo, Lisa M Bernardo, and António Silva. “A Systematic Review of the Effects of Pilates Method of Exercise in Healthy People.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 92, no. 12 (2011): 2071–81. [PDF]

Cruz-Ferreira, Ana, Jorge Fernandes, Yi-Liang Kuo, Lisa Marie Bernardo, Orlando Fernandes, Luis Laranjo, and António Silva. “Does Pilates-Based Exercise Improve Postural Alignment in Adult Women?” Women & Health 53, no. 6 (2013): 597–611.

Curnow, Dorothy, Deirdre Cobbin, Jennifer Wyndham, and S T Boris Choy. “Altered Motor Control, Posture and the Pilates Method of Exercise Prescription.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 13, no. 1 (2009): 104–11. [PDF]

Eftekhari, Elham, and Masoud Etemadifar. “Impact of Clinical Mat Pilates on Body Composition and Functional Indices in Female Patients With Multiple Sclerosis.” Crescent Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences 5, no. 4 (2018): 297–305. [PDF]

Emery, Kim, Sophie J De Serres, Ann McMillan, and Julie N Côté. “The Effects of a Pilates Training Program on Arm–Trunk Posture and Movement.” Clinical Biomechanics 25, no. 2 (2010): 124–30.

Endleman, Irit, and Duncan J Critchley. “Transversus Abdominis and Obliquus Internus Activity during Pilates Exercises: Measurement with Ultrasound Scanning.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 89, no. 11 (2008): 2205–12. [PDF]

Esco, Michael R., Michele S. Olson, Roxanne St. Martin, Elese Woollen, Michael Elllis, and Henry N. Williford. “Abdominal EMG of Selected Pilates Mat Exercises.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2004.

Eyigor, Sibel, Hale Karapolat, Hilal Yesil, Ruchan Uslu, and Berrin Durmaz. “Effects of Pilates Exercises on Functional Capacity, Flexibility, Fatigue, Depression and Quality of Life in Female Breast Cancer Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study.” Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 46, no. 4 (2010): 481–87. [PDF]

Fonseca, Juliana Limba da, Marcio Magini, and Thais Helena de Freitas. “Laboratory Gait Analysis in Patients with Low Back Pain before and after a Pilates Intervention.” Journal of Sport Rehabilitation 18, no. 2 (2009): 269–82. [PDF]

Geweniger, Verena, and Alexander Bohlander. Pilates− A Teachers’ Manual: Exercises with Mats and Equipment for Prevention and Rehabilitation. Springer, 2014.

Gladwell, Valerie, Samantha Head, Martin Haggar, and Ralph Beneke. “Does a Program of Pilates Improve Chronic Non-Specific Low Back Pain?” Journal of Sport Rehabilitation 15, no. 4 (2006): 338–50. [PDF]

Gonzales, Ana Ines, Tatyana Nery, Samuel Geraldi Fragnani, Franciele Pereira, Robson R Lemos, Poliana Penasso Bezerra, and Patricia Haas. “Pilates Exercise for Hypertensive Patients: A Review of the Literature.” Altern Ther Health Med 22, no. 5 (2016): 38–43. [PDF]

Han, Jung-Soo, Woon-Su Cho, and Jae-Heon Lim. “The Effects of Pilates Mat Exercise on Trunk Muscle Thickness and Balance.” The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy 29, no. 4 (2017): 201–6. [PDF]

Herrington, Lee, and Rachel Davies. “The Influence of Pilates Training on the Ability to Contract the Transversus Abdominis Muscle in Asymptomatic Individuals.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 9, no. 1 (2005): 52–57. [PDF]

Method and Findings: Thirty-six asymptomatic females were examined. Twelve formed the Pilates trained group, 12 the abdominal curl group (both attending a minimum of 25 classes in 6 months) and 12 were non-training controls. A pressure biofeedback unit (PBU) was used to assess performance of the TrA muscle during an abdominal hollowing activity (TrA isolation test) and under limb load (Lumbo-pelvic stability test).
The percentage of subjects passing the TrA isolation test was 10 subjects (83%) from the Pilates group, four subjects (33%) from the abdominal curl group, and three subjects (25%) from the control group. The percentage of subjects passing the lumbo-pelvic stability test was five subjects (42%) from the Pilates group, all the subjects from both the abdominal curl and control groups failed the test. The study appears to indicate that Pilates trained subjects could contract the TrA and maintain better lumbo-pelvic control than do those who perform regular abdominal curl exercises, or no abdominal muscle exercises.

Holmes, Sarah W. “The Pilates Pelvis: Racial Implications of the Immobile Hips.” Dance Research Journal 46, no. 2 (2014): 57–72.

Holmes, Sarah W. “The Presence of Absences: Unconscious Performances and Muscle Memories in Pilates.” Journal of Dance & Somatic Practices 7, no. 1 (2015): 31–42.

Holmes, Sarah. “Bodily Text and the Written Word of Pilates: A Theoretical Approach to How the Ballerina’s Body Concealed and Revealed Problematic Ideologies in an Exercise Practice.” Nordic Journal of Dance, n.d. [PDF]

Hyun, Ju, Kak Hwangbo, and Chae-Woo Lee. “The Effects of Pilates Mat Exercise on the Balance Ability of Elderly Females.” Journal of Physical Therapy Science 26, no. 2 (2014): 291–93. [PDF]

Irez, Gonul Babayigit, Recep Ali Ozdemir, Ruya Evin, Salih Gokhan Irez, and Feza Korkusuz. “Integrating Pilates Exercise into an Exercise Program for 65+ Year-Old Women to Reduce Falls.” Journal of Sports Science & Medicine10, no. 1 (2011): 105. [PDF]

Isacowitz, Rael, and Karen Clippinger. Pilates Anatomy. Human Kinetics, 2019.

Jago, Russell, Mariëlle L Jonker, Mariam Missaghian, and Tom Baranowski. “Effect of 4 Weeks of Pilates on the Body Composition of Young Girls.” Preventive Medicine 42, no. 3 (2006): 177–80. [PDF]

Johnson, Eric G, Andrea Larsen, Hiromi Ozawa, Christine A Wilson, and Karen L Kennedy. “The Effects of Pilates-Based Exercise on Dynamic Balance in Healthy Adults.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 11, no. 3 (2007): 238–42.

Jung, Kyounghwa, Jongbeom Seo, Won-Sang Jung, Jisu Kim, Hun-Young Park, and Kiwon Lim. “Effects of an Acute Pilates Program under Hypoxic Conditions on Vascular Endothelial Function in Pilates Participants: A Randomized Crossover Trial.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 7 (2020): 2584. [PDF]

Kloubec, June A. “Pilates for Improvement of Muscle Endurance, Flexibility, Balance, and Posture.” The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 24, no. 3 (2010): 661–67.

Kuo, Yi-Liang, Elizabeth A Tully, and Mary P Galea. “Sagittal Spinal Posture after Pilates-Based Exercise in Healthy Older Adults.” Spine 34, no. 10 (2009): 1046–51.

Lange, Claudia, Viswanath B Unnithan, Elizabeth Larkam, and Paula M Latta. “Maximizing the Benefits of Pilates-Inspired Exercise for Learning Functional Motor Skills.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 4, no. 2 (2000): 99–108. [PDF]

Latey, Penelope. “The Pilates Method: History and Philosophy.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 5, no. 4 (2001): 275–82. [PDF]

Lorenzo, Christine E Di. “Pilates: What Is It? Should It Be Used in Rehabilitation?” Sports Health 3, no. 4 (2011): 352–61. [PDF]

Luz Jr, Mauricio Antonio Da, Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa, Fernanda Ferreira Fuhro, Ana Carolina Taccolini Manzoni, Naiane Teixeira Bastos Oliveira, and Cristina Maria Nunes Cabral. “Effectiveness of Mat Pilates or Equipment-Based Pilates Exercises in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Physical Therapy 94, no. 5 (2014): 623–31. [PDF]

McMillan, Ann, Luc Proteau, and Rose-Marie Lèbe. “The Effect of Pilates-Based Training on Dancers’ Dynamic Posture.” Journal of Dance Medicine & Science 2, no. 3 (1998): 101–7.

Muscolino, Joseph E, and Simona Cipriani. “Pilates and the ‘Powerhouse’—I.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8, no. 1 (2004): 15–24. [PDF]

Muscolino, Joseph E, and Simona Cipriani. “Pilates and the ‘Powerhouse’—II.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8, no. 2 (2004): 122–30. [PDF]

Niehues, Janaina Rocha. “Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.” Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 21, no. 5 (2015): 73. [PDF]

Oliveira, N T B, SMSF Freitas, Katherinne Ferro Moura, M A Luz Junior, and Cristina Maria Nunes Cabral. “Biomechanical Analysis of the Trunk and Pelvis during Pilates Method Exercises: Systematic Review.” Fisioter Pesq 22, no. 4 (2015): 443–55. [PDF]

Oliveira, Naiane Teixeira Bastos de, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira Freitas, Fernanda Ferreira Fuhro, Mauricio Antonio da Luz Jr, Cesar Ferreira Amorim, and Cristina Maria Nunes Cabral. “Muscle Activation During Pilates Exercises in Participants With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 98, no. 1 (2017): 88–95.

Olson, Michele, and Carrie Myers Smith. “Pilates exercise: lesssons from the lab: a new research study examines the effectiveness and safety of selected pilates mat exercises.” IDEA Fitness Journal 2, no. 10 (2005): 38-44.

Olson, Michele S., Michael Esco, Williford N. Henry, Mike Ellis, and Roxanne St. Martin. “Prediction of Superficial Versus Deep Abdominal Muscle Activity During Selected Pilates Exercises.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2008.

Olson, Michele S., Henry N. Williford, Roxanne St. Martin, Michael Ellis, Elese Woolen, and Michael R. Esco. “The Energy Cost of a Basic, Intermediate, and Advanced Pilatesʼ Mat Workout.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2004.

Olson, Michele. “Core Strength: The ‘Anatomy’ of Investigating Abdominal Exercises.” ACSM’s Health and Fitness Journal, 2013.

Owsley, Anna. “An Introduction to Clinical Pilates.” International Journal of Athletic Therapy and Training 10, no. 4 (2005): 19–25.

Park, Jae Ho, Hee-jae Kim, Dong Hun Choi, Sok Park, and Yoon Young Hwang. “Effects of 8-Week Pilates Training Program on Hamstring/Quadriceps Ratio and Trunk Strength in Adolescent Baseball Players: A Pilot Case Study.” Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation 16, no. 1 (2020): 88.

Paterson, Jane. Teaching Pilates for Postural Faults, Illness and Injury: A Practical Guide. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2008.

Patti, Antonino, Antonino Bianco, Antonio Paoli, Giuseppe Messina, Maria Alessandra Montalto, Marianna Bellafiore, Giuseppe Battaglia, Angelo Iovane, and Antonio Palma. “Effects of Pilates Exercise Programs in People with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review.” Medicine 94, no. 4 (2015). [PDF]

Phrompaet, Sureeporn, Aatit Paungmali, Ubon Pirunsan, and Patraporn Sitilertpisan. “Effects of Pilates Training on Lumbo-Pelvic Stability and Flexibility.” Asian Journal of Sports Medicine 2, no. 1 (2011): 16. [PDF]

Posadzki, Paul, Pawel Lizis, and Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska. “Pilates for Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review.” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 17, no. 2 (2011): 85–89. [PDF]

Queiroz, Bergson C, Mariana F Cagliari, César F Amorim, and Isabel C Sacco. “Muscle Activation during Four Pilates Core Stability Exercises in Quadruped Position.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 91, no. 1 (2010): 86–92. [PDF]

Rayes, Angeles Bonal Rosell, Claudio Andre B de Lira, Ricardo B Viana, Ana A Benedito-Silva, Rodrigo L Vancini, Naryana Mascarin, and Marilia S Andrade. “The Effects of Pilates vs. Aerobic Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Isokinetic Muscular Strength, Body Composition, and Functional Tasks Outcomes for Individuals Who Are Overweight/Obese: A Clinical Trial.” PeerJ 7 (2019): e6022. [PDF]

Redfield, Stacey, and Sarah Holmes. The Pilates Effect: Heroes Behind the Revolution. Red Lightning Books, 2019.

Rogers, Kate, and Ann L Gibson. “Eight-Week Traditional Mat Pilates Training-Program Effects on Adult Fitness Characteristics.” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 80, no. 3 (2009): 569–74.

Rydeard, Rochenda, Andrew Leger, and Drew Smith. “Pilates-Based Therapeutic Exercise: Effect on Subjects with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain and Functional Disability: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 36, no. 7 (2006): 472–84. [PDF]

Santos, Juviane Meneses dos, Luis Fernando Sousa Filho, Vitor Oliveira Carvalho, Rogério Brandão Wichi, and Evaleide Diniz de Oliveira. “Hemodynamic and Creatine Kinase Changes after a 12-Week Equipment-Based Pilates Training Program in Hypertensive Women.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 2020.

Şavkin, Raziye, and Ummuhan B Aslan. “The Effect of Pilates Exercise on Body Composition in Sedentary Overweight and Obese Women.” The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 57, no. 11 (2016): 1464–70.

Segal, Neil A, Jane Hein, and Jeffrey R Basford. “The Effects of Pilates Training on Flexibility and Body Composition: An Observational Study.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 85, no. 12 (2004): 1977–81. [PDF]

Sekendiz, Betül, Özkan Altun, Feza Korkusuz, and Sabire Akın. “Effects of Pilates Exercise on Trunk Strength, Endurance and Flexibility in Sedentary Adult Females.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 11, no. 4 (2007): 318–26. [PDF]

Shedden, Mariana, and Len Kravitz. “Pilates Exercise a Research-Based Review.” Journal of Dance Medicine & Science10, no. 3–4 (2006): 111–16.

Silva, Mariana Felipe, Mônica Angélica Cardoso Silva, Renata Rosa de Campos, Karen Obara, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci Mostagi, Ana Paula Rossetto Garcia Cardoso, Taufik Abrão, and Jefferson Rosa Cardoso. “A comparative analysis of the electrical activity of the abdominal muscles during traditional and Pilates-based exercises under two conditions.” Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano 15, no. 3 (2013): 296-304. [PDF]

Silva, Gabriela Bueno, Mirele Minussi Morgan, Wellington Roberto Gomes de Carvalho, Elisangela Silva, Wagner Zeferino de Freitas, Fabiano Fernandes da Silva, and Renato Aparecido de Souza. “Electromyographic Activity of Rectus Abdominis Muscles during Dynamic Pilates Abdominal Exercises.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 19, no. 4 (2015): 629–35. [PDF]

Silva, Mariana Felipe, Mônica Angélica Cardoso Silva, Renata Rosa de Campos, Karen Obara, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci Mostagi, Ana Paula Rossetto Garcia Cardoso, Taufik Abrão, and Jefferson Rosa Cardoso. “A Comparative Analysis of the Electrical Activity of the Abdominal Muscles during Traditional and Pilates-Based Exercises under Two Conditions.” Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano 15, no. 3 (2013): 296–304.

Siqueira Rodrigues, Brena Guedes de, Samaria Ali Cader, Natáli Valim Oliver Bento Torres, Ediléa Monteiro de Oliveira, and Estélio Henrique Martin Dantas. “Pilates Method in Personal Autonomy, Static Balance and Quality of Life of Elderly Females.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 14, no. 2 (2010): 195–202.

Smith, Kristin, and Elizabeth Smith. “Integrating Pilates-Based Core Strengthening into Older Adult Fitness Programs: Implications for Practice.” Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation 21, no. 1 (2005): 57–67.

Sorosky, Susan, Sonja Stilp, and Venu Akuthota. “Yoga and Pilates in the Management of Low Back Pain.” Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine 1, no. 1 (2008): 39–47. [PDF]

“Given the interest of the general population in yoga and Pilates and the emergence of information supporting their use for CLBP, it appears these mind–body exercise thera- pies may be helpful tools in managing patients with LBP. Health care providers who treat LBP and consider recom- mending yoga and/or Pilates to these patients should therefore have a basic understanding of these exercise regimens. For yoga, one should be familiar with the core postures of a typical yoga class. One should also under- stand that different styles of yoga exist and some, i.e. Iyengar yoga and Viniyoga, may be better suited for the LBP patient. For Pilates, one should be aware of the basic exercises in a mat class as well as the potential for pro- gression to more challenging exercises on specialized apparatus. Finally, because instructors are not required to obtain a specific license in order to teach yoga or Pilates, one should direct the patient to seek out instructors who have at least several years of teaching experience including working with LBP patients. With this information, the health care provider will be well equipped when recom- mending yoga or Pilates as a management tool for this often challenging group of patients” (p. 47)

Souza Cavina, Allysiê Priscilla de, Eduardo Pizzo Junior, Aryane Flauzino Machado, Taíse Mendes Biral, Leonardo Kesrouani Lemos, Caio Russo Dutra Rodrigues, Carlos Marcelo Pastre, and Franciele Marques Vanderlei. “Effects of the Mat Pilates Method on Body Composition: Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Physical Activity and Health 17, no. 6 (2020): 673–81. [PDF]

Souza, Catiane, Renata Lopes Krüger, Emanuelle Francine Detogni Schmit, Edgar Santiago Wagner Neto, Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira, Cloud Kennedy Couto de Sá, and Jefferson Fagundes Loss. “Cardiorespiratory Adaptation to Pilates Training.” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2020, 1–7.

Souza, Marcelo von Sperling de, and Claudiane Brum Vieira. “Who Are the People Looking for the Pilates Method?” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 10, no. 4 (2006): 328–34. [PDF]

Spilde, S, and J P Porcari. “ACE-Sponsored Study: Can Pilates Do It All.” ACE Fitness Matters, 2005, 10–11. [PDF]

Taylor, Janet L, Markus Amann, Jacques Duchateau, Romain Meeusen, and Charles L Rice. “Neural Contributions to Muscle Fatigue: From the Brain to the Muscle and Back Again.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 48, no. 11 (2016): 2294. [PDF]

Touche, Roy La, Karla Escalante, and María Teresa Linares. “Treating Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain through the Pilates Method.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 12, no. 4 (2008): 364–70. [PDF]

Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel, Fernando Alacid, Francisco Esparza-Ros, Daniel López-Plaza, José M Muyor, and Pedro A López-Miñarro. “The Effects of a Reformer Pilates Program on Body Composition and Morphological Characteristics in Active Women after a Detraining Period.” Women & Health 56, no. 7 (2016): 784–806. [PDF]

Vargas, Stacey L, and Kerry A Wachtfogel. “Pilates Sock with Tactile Posture Feedback.” Google Patents, March 25, 2008. [PDF]

Wajswelner, Henry, Ben Metcalf, and Kim Bennell. “Clinical Pilates versus General Exercise for Chronic Low Back Pain: Randomized Trial.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 44, no. 7 (2012): 1197–1205. [PDF]

Wells, Cherie, Gregory S Kolt, and Andrea Bialocerkowski. “Defining Pilates Exercise: A Systematic Review.” Complementary Therapies in Medicine 20, no. 4 (2012): 253–62. [PDF]

Yamato, Tiê P, Christopher G Maher, Bruno T Saragiotto, Mark J Hancock, Raymond W J G Ostelo, Cristina M N Cabral, Luciola C Menezes Costa, and Leonardo O P Costa. “Pilates for Low Back Pain.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 7 (2015). [PDF]

Authors’ Conclusion: We did not find any high quality evidence for any of the treatment comparisons, outcomes or follow‐up periods investigated. However, there is low to moderate quality evidence that Pilates is more effective than minimal intervention for pain and disability. When Pilates was compared with other exercises we found a small effect for function at intermediate‐term follow‐up. Thus, while there is some evidence for the effectiveness of Pilates for low back pain, there is no conclusive evidence that it is superior to other forms of exercises. The decision to use Pilates for low back pain may be based on the patient’s or care provider’s preferences, and costs.

Yates, Asia V, Ayla A Donlin, George J Beneck, and Evan E Schick. “The Influence of Surface Angle on Muscle Activity during Pilates Based Exercises.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 22, no. 1 (2018): 225–31. [PDF]

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